• Willful Ignorance and the Legacy of the ‘Comfort Women’ (慰安婦) in Japan

    May 22, 2017

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    Posted in: Hooper's War


    Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe once told told parliament he was “stunned” at the content of an American high school history textbook. Japan’s Foreign Ministry complained to the book’s author. A group of 19 Japanese historians, lead by a professor from Ivy League-equivalent Nihon University is sending “corrections” to the publisher.

    The topic of contention: Japan’s World War II system of sex slavery, the so-called “comfort women,” (慰安婦; ianfu in Japanese) women and girls kidnapped from conquered Asia to serve as sex slaves to the Japanese Imperial Army. Japanese historians downplay or deny their existence. Japan’s Asian neighbors know the truth, and struggle against the revisionist history.

    Germany, Japan and the Legacy of WWII

    Unlike Germany, which has reconciled with its World War II past, paid reparations to its victims and worked to achieve modern relationships with its neighbors, Japan has more than passively chosen to not acknowledge its past. Japan seeks to actively deny the existence of well-documented historical events it committed, even to the detriment of current relations with important neighboring nations. Yet while Holocaust deniers in Germany are seen as little more than crackpots, comfort women deniers occupy positions at the most senior levels of government.

    The majority of Japan’s victims were kidnapped from occupied Korea. Known in Japanese as ianfu, and in Korean as wianbu, the number of women enslaved varies considerably, from unrealistic lows in the tens of thousands to high-end estimates close to half a million. While the numbers themselves are a source of ongoing friction between Japan and the victimized countries, in some ways they matter little; atrocity is atrocity, and tragedy tragedy. Pain does not scale, it simply remains. Nonetheless, differences over the number of women involved are representative of the larger issue: Japan simply will not come to terms with what it did.

    The Evidence

    Japan’s official attitudes toward the issue are especially troubling given the preponderance of evidence even within their own archives. Former Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone, stationed during WWII on Borneo, organized a “comfort station.” The young officer’s success in procuring Indonesian women went so well that he was officially commended. The source of this information? Nakasone’s own 1978 autobiography.

    Imagine a U.S. presidential candidate making similar claims.

    Limited but key testimony from Japanese responsible for the system also exists. The former president of the Sankei newspaper, a major Japanese daily, worked in the accounting division of the Imperial Japanese Army during the war. He was in charge of staffing and opening “comfort stations.” The now-elderly former bureaucrat described his work as “When we procured the girls, we had to look at their endurance, how used up they were, whether they were good or not. We had to calculate the allotted time for commissioned officers, commanding officers, grunts, how many minutes. There was even a prospectus we learned in military accounting school. The term used for the procurement of women was choben, an old military word that referred to gathering food for the horses.”

    But nothing from the Japanese side comes close to comparing to the memories of the surviving women themselves. Here is just one example; as with the Holocaust, there are too many more:

    Soldiers came to my room. The first soldier wasn’t drunk and when he tried to rip my clothes off, I shouted “No!” and he left. The second soldier was drunk. He waved a knife at me and threatened to kill me if I didn’t do what he said. But I didn’t care if I died, and in the end he stabbed me… My clothes were soaked with blood. I was treated in the infirmary for twenty days. I was sent back to my room. A soldier who had just returned from the fighting came in… I had a bandage on my chest. Despite that, the soldier attacked me, and when I wouldn’t do what he said, he seized my wrists and threw me out of the room. My wrists were broken, and they are still very weak. I was kicked by a soldier. It took the skin right off… you could see the bone. When the soldiers came back from the battlefields, as many as 20 men would come to my room from early morning… There was no bedding… underneath was earth. We cried in the dark “Mummy, it hurts!

    Approximately three quarters of comfort women died, and most survivors were left infertile due to sexual trauma or sexually transmitted diseases. Beatings and physical torture, beyond the daily gang rapes, were common.

    Current Efforts in Japan to Deny the Issue

    Current Prime Minister Abe’s administration denies Japan ran a system of human trafficking and sex slavery, implying that comfort women were simply camp-following prostitutes. His latest move came when his party appointed Nakasone’s son to chair a commission to “consider concrete measures to restore Japan’s honor with regard to the comfort women issue.”

    Abe’s goal is to dilute the 1993 Kono Statement, named for Japan’s chief cabinet secretary at the time, Yohei Kono. Though perhaps unnecessarily vague in the original language text, the statement was understood in Asia as about the closest that was ever going to emerge from the Japanese government to an apology for the sex slave system.

    The efforts by Abe to deny sex slavery are not his first. During Abe’s first administration, in 2007, his cabinet began undermining the Kono Statement by stating there was no documentary evidence of coercion in the acquisition of women, and that the Statement was not binding government policy.

    Sex Slaves and Foreign Relations

    The Japanese government seems unconcerned in the extreme with how its views on WWII sex slavery affect its Asian neighbors. The issue remains a block to better relations with Korea and China especially; some of Japan’s other neighbors who do not occupy such strong economic positions have had to ameliorate their criticism for practical reasons, though the underlying anger remains.

    The role of the United States remains troubling to many. Unlike in Germany, where the U.S.-led Nuremberg Trials pressed Nazi war crimes into the world’s media and served as a starting point for Germany’s own healing, war crime trials in post-war Japan were brief, focused in large part on responsibility for the decision to go to war in the first place, and purposefully excluded the Emperor. Imagine if Hitler had lived and if the U.S. chose not to bring him to trial.

    Support in the United States is spotty. The House of Representatives, in 2007, passed a non-binding resolution asking the Japanese government to redress the situation and to teach the actual historical facts in its schools. In 2012, then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton denounced the use of the euphemism “comfort women” and stated the victims should be referred to as “enforced sex slaves.”

    However, the United States otherwise has remained largely silent on the issue, preferring to say the disagreements over the history of the sex slaves, like those over the facts of the Rape of Nanjing and the ownership of several small islands in the region that continue to roil East Asian relations, need to be sorted out by the parties involved. Many see this as a weak way out, and, given America’s influence over Japan, almost a tacit acceptance of Japan’s history as unimportant.

    How many Japanese citizens agree with their government’s version of WWII history is difficult to pin down. However, given the election successes of those politicians pandering to the extreme revisionist views of events, one can sadly surmise the percentage is not small. Willful ignorance in the face of overwhelming evidence remains the most recent wounds committed against the “comfort women” by Japan.

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  • Recent Comments

    • Ian Brookes said...


      In 2007 I was living in Japan and dating a Japanese woman in her 30s. There was a news item about comfort women and I asked her views. She was in total denial that it ever happened, parroting the right wing nationalist view that they were volunteer prostitutes. When I tried to point out the evidence she did not want to listen.

      Japanese people cannot accept that their countrymen could behave in such a barbaric way and without International pressure- perhaps a UN Resolution – they will never face reality and accept national responsibility.

      05/22/17 1:58 AM | Comment Link

    • `David Thomas said...


      My daughter went on a visit to Japan with the last group of WW2 POWS. I think its been an every 5 year official get together that’s officially received by the government there. Its the last because of the ages of the men now. My daughter went to make up numbers.
      She was thoroughly amazed at the ignorance shown by university aged students in a friendly forum held. She is not a buff by any means.
      I suppose we an only be grateful that at least they are not educated by the same culture that was there pre WW2.

      Great site by the way.

      05/22/17 7:46 AM | Comment Link

    • Jonathan L. Seagull said...


      Peter, you are flat out wrong on this — you are contradicted by the Army’s own documents that they assembled when they were trying to document Japanese war crimes in 1946. Read them here:


      Furthermore, both Japan and Korea continued their comfort women systems — Korea still has them in the present day for US soldiers, and they are still officially called wianbu.

      There is a well-known academic analysis by a Korean-American historian who is actually able to read Korean. It shows that the Korean narrative is not at all factual, but is an attempt at healing war wounds which was first formulated in the 1990s. You can see that here:


      05/22/17 9:03 AM | Comment Link

    • Bruce said...


      Howzabout US’ (Israeli, Saudi,et al) E卐CEϟϟ Of
      EVIL oppression being practiced worldwide, N.0.W. ?!

      05/22/17 10:52 AM | Comment Link

    • Kyzl Orda said...


      Edward Said termed it “blaming the victims”

      05/22/17 11:21 AM | Comment Link

    • Mitch said...


      Victimizing the Victims….

      Attack the whistle blower….

      Camouflage the narrative … And change the talking points….

      Practice makes perfect.


      05/22/17 11:33 AM | Comment Link

    • chuck said...


      Off to listen to “Ohio” CSNY, 1974, have a nice day.

      05/22/17 2:20 PM | Comment Link

    • chuck said...


      Will Yemen and parts of Sudan be leveled? (Headlines say Saudi’s attack Terror!)

      05/22/17 2:23 PM | Comment Link

    • John Garvey said...


      Golly is this a Japanese problem exclusively? What do you think men who are at war do when they enter a village, town or city? Golly, I wonder if Americans entering in Japan or Europe committed any sexual crimes. Are the American people “ignorant” about the whole sale slaughter of men and women in Mai Lai which apparently was not a unique, but common place incident where the women were first raped and then slaughtered.

      It’s always the Americans pointing fingers and bombing everybody. Who supports Saudi Arabia where women are slaves to men and bombs Iraq where women were part of the government, went to school and traveled?

      05/23/17 1:01 PM | Comment Link

    • wemeantwell said...


      I’m writing about something specific, the Japanese Army and sex slaves, not a history of rape and war. Writing about one historical event does not mean others are not equally important. Can you not get that one article about one subject is actually just one article about one subject and not some attempt to create a new political narrative as imagined by you?

      05/24/17 9:45 AM | Comment Link

    • Zack Sorenson said...


      I sympathize with the Japanese perspective for the following reason: Curtis LeMay and Bomber Harris are still proudly memorialized. The Dutch, French, and British have hardly apologized for their Empires. Outside of modern Germany you just don’t see serious national self-shaming.

      The West is a little in advance of Japan in terms of self-reflection, but no one will apologize for Hiroshima. I personally can’t sort out the claims of revisionism, but I find it credible that some Japanese atrocities are presented from he frame of victors’ history.

      So, at time Japan’s willful ignorance – from their reasonable perspective – seems like little more than a modicum of national self-respect. They’re the great yellow menace of American mythology. Standing up for their own moral character shouldn’t be taken as an offense.

      05/28/17 9:08 PM | Comment Link

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